If either one or the other of magnitudes is zero, under this condition the polarization is LINEAR. The polarization state is one of the fundamental characteristics that is required to study light. conversion (or FWM) weakly in a cavity until we produce exactly one pair, thereby deterministically adding a photon to the idler mode. lms and run taper_width_sweep. 2) Reduce the rate to 128 MHz by parallel processing techniques in FPGA. Linear Polarization Since linear polarization can be blocked to better than 0. The condition for linear polarization is that Phi should take values such as : Phi = n*Pi, where n is an integer. Polarized Light •Vectors - what they are and how they apply to light waves • Linearly polarized light - Vertical, horizontal, other directions - Components of linear polarization in other directions - Law of Malus and linear polarizers • Circular and elliptical polarization • Unpolarized light - Random polarization. The phase diﬁerence depends on the incident wavelength, the refractive indices (along the two diﬁerent direc-tions) and the thickness of the crystal. There are no such waves that exhibit strictly linear or circular polarization, but. ating as a polarization controller by use of the Jones matrix method and coupled-mode theory. 3 Polarization by Reflection Your polarized light kit has five grayish filters, of which three are linear polarizers and two are circular polarizers. So first let's look at polarization in. They cannot be measured close to an antenna. Circular Polarization : Tip of the vector describes a circle. Linear, circular, and elliptical polarizations are three specific types of TEM polarization. It is possible for the wave to become 100% circularly polarized. An ultrathin single-layer metasurface manifesting both linear cross-polarization conversion (CPC) and linear-to-circular polarization (LP-to-CP) conversion in X-band is presented in this research. in the z direction, what are the possible directions of linear polarization at any given instant? Since the wave is transverse, the linear polarization must be in the x-y plane. ATCA, ALMA (and possibly EVLA at 1. Ultra-wideband and broad-angle linear polarization conversion metasurface Hengyi Sun,1 Changqing Gu,1,a) Xinlei Chen,1 Zhuo Li,1,2 Liangliang Liu,1 and Ferran Martın3 1Key Laboratory of Radar Imaging and Microwave Photonics, Ministry of Education, College of Electronic. 9 THz (32%). Polarization via Birefringence There is an asymmetry in index of refraction that exists in some materials, called birefringence. Linearly polarized light shines on a chiral target and emerges elliptically polarized. 2% conversion effi-ciency for a light spectrum from 400 to 700 nm and incident angle from 0 to 60°. The ﬁeld must be observed along the direction of propagation. svg; File:Polarisation state - Left-elliptical polarization B. In this case, the electric field may be oriented in a single direction (linear polarization), or it may rotate as the wave travels (circular or elliptical polarization). Use different values for Phi = n*Pi and check that the polarization is linear. Classification of Polarization. Results: We obtained polarization purity of -25 dB corresponding to a D-term of 0. Elliptical polarization. The FPR product line uses bulk. Hold a pendulum a moderate distance from equilibrium and release it by tossing it in a direction parallel to the displacement of the mass from equilibrium. The change of polarization that ac-. Polarization-Independent Wavelength Conversion at 2. A polarizer can be used as a way to broadly divide light into dichroic and reflective polarizers. axis is incident on two different objects. See polarization and plane of polarization for more information. Thus linear and circular polarization are the two special cases of elliptical polarization. This paper studies possibilities to convert linear polarization into circular polarization by designing an artificially anisotropic cylinder around the antenna. of a polarization state generator, according to the parameters of a desired polarization ellipse. The VCSEL used was purchased commercially and has a 20-mm-diam circular cavity with an output wavelength of 850 nm. 6 It can reach maximum 93. Electromagnetic wave is said to be polarized in the direction of E(Electric field) vector. The polarization match between the transmitting and receiving object is calculated dynamically on a scale of 0 to 1, where 0 is no match and results in no received signal, and 1 is perfect (no loss). Linear polarization resistance (LPR) is a quick, nondestructive testing technique commonly used in material corrosion studies to gain corrosion rate data. Introduction Birefringence effects on the transport of polarized radiation in a magnetized plasma are usually dealt with in the limiting cases of circular and linear birefringence, namely, Faraday. • Faraday conversion: Particles in magnetic fields can cause the polarization ellipticity to change, turning a fraction of the linear polarization into circular (possibly seen in cores of AGN). Correctly chosen waveplates can convert any polarization state into a new polarization state, and are most often used to rotate linear polarization, to convert linearly polarized light to circularly polarized light or vice versa. This exception can be explained by the fact convert elliptical polarization linear elliptical trainers is usually a small stride length. Recently, Tsai and Wu reported a broadband wide-incident-angle reflective polarization converter using a metal grating to replace the diffusive reflector. The need to align the input polarization state to a fiber axis in order to have the polarization preserved is of course a serious practical disadvantage of PM fibers. Polarization 3 Antenna Polarization Slide 4 It describes the movement of the locus (end point) of the electric field. Results: We obtained polarization purity of -25 dB corresponding to a D-term of 0. One example is the Westerbork synthesis radio telescope, which converts native linear polarization to circular polarization by a combination of analogue and digital techniques for VLBI. Any given polarization state corresponds to a unique point on the sphere. Aus der Ebene versetzter Ringlaserkreisel (10) mit einem Rahmen (12), einer Ausnehmung (14) im Rahmen (12) zum Bilden eines nicht-geschlossenen optischen Strahlenganges, einem Verstärkungsmedium in der Ausnehmung (14) zum Erzeugen zweier Lichtstrahlen, die sich in der Ausnehmung (14) in einander entgegengesetzten Richtungen fortpflanzen, gekennzeichnet durch Mittel (42, 44, 46, 44A, 44B usw. Linear, circular, and elliptical polarizations are three specific types of TEM polarization. Well, convert if elliptical polarization linear polarization you missed it this and money has been spent in cancer research. In this paper, we propose to achieve wideband linear-to-circular (LTC) polarization conversion by ultra-thin bi-layered metasurfaces. Paper Abstract and Keywords: Presentation: 2017-03-03 09:00 Error sensitivity on axial ratio evaluation of elliptical polarization -- On the method using amplitude. • Linear, Circular, and Elliptical Polarization • Circa1670 Christian Huygens first suggested the vectoral nature of light to explain its behavior propagating through crystals. a linear scale. Like circular polarization, elliptical polarization can be right-handed or left-handed, and like linear polarization, the ellipse has a definite direction of orientation, indicated by the blue line above. Cartesian to Elliptical Transformation Linear Polarizers A linear polarizer is a device that creates a linear polarization state from an arbitrary input. 9 GHz to 22. Other angles create elliptical polarization, which is the underlying polarization state for circular as well as linear. Elliptical Polarization In this case we allow arbitrary phase relationships a and b: It is easier to see what this means if we write each component out in real form: Suppose we let and. 0%, and average 87. Radar Signal Polarization. When choosing an antenna, it is an important consideration as to whether the polarization is linear or elliptical. The linear-circular polarization conversion efficiency of the RV-VB reaches a maximum value periodically during propagation, as expected. 3 Quick estimation of a wave polarization state A wave polarization is completely defined by two parameters derived from the polarization ellipse - its orientation. Nemec Abstract After Cassini’s arrival at planet Saturn, its Radio and Plasma Wave Science. ation is that which superposes the vector of. Examples are the CVI Glan Laser Polarizers. If the major and minor axes of the ellipse are equal, the polarization is said to be circular. And because of this, we call this circular polarization. Some polarizers reflect the rejected state, creating a new, usable beam. High-efficiency ultra-wideband polarization conversion metasurfaces based on split elliptical ring resonators: Yu Ji-Bao 1, Ma Hua 1, Wang Jia-Fu 1, Feng Ming-De 1 2, Li Yong-Feng 1, Qu Shao-Bo 1: 1. svg; File:Polarisation state - Left-elliptical polarization B. We can convert these measures More convenient are fractional polarization and polarization angle ml= Q2 U2 I fractional linear polarization mc= V I fractional circular polarization mt= Q2 U2 V2 I fractional polarization = 1 2 tan−1 U Q position angle of the plane of polarization. imposed on the orthogonally polarized components. These polarization states are important because (1) they are relatively easy to create in a laboratory using linear and circular polarizers, and (2) polarization measurements as well as many polarization calculations are greatly simplified using these specific polarization states. The present invention relates to a linear/circular polarization converter and particularly to a linear/circular polarization converter to realize linear polarization-circular polarization conversion by using an elliptical waveguide having an elliptical cross-section consisting of long axis and short axis and selecting the long axis size, short axis size and length in the tube axis direction of. 1(a) and its distinction from a typical recollision trajectory with linear polarization (LP), as illustrated in Fig. Read "Polarization-squeezed light: generation, effects of partial polarization, and linear and nonlinear conversion, Proceedings of SPIE" on DeepDyve, the largest online rental service for scholarly research with thousands of academic publications available at your fingertips. Elliptical polarization is described by the Stokes' parameters, which may be expressed in terms of ∆R0 and ∆Φ 0, where ∆Φ 0 is the phase difference between the zero harmonics of E- and H-polarizations, see Fig. It is also applicable in optical tweezers and microscopy. •Polarization is classiﬁed as linear, circular, or elliptical. Dorney,1,* Jennifer L. Therefore, changes in polarization cause changes in the magnitude of the received signal due to the inability of the antenna to receive polarization changes. • Faraday conversion: Particles in magnetic fields can cause the polarization ellipticity to change, turning a fraction of the linear polarization into circular (possibly seen in cores of AGN). The elliptical to linear polarization transformation for different inci-dent wave angle is illustrated in Fig. Polarization can be rotated eefectively and achromatically with Liquid Crystal twisted nematic Polarization rotator (TN cell). The second polarization controller (one before the isolator) is adjusted such that it forces the polarization to be linear in the central part of the pulse. Specifically, linear, right hand circular. In this paper we propose a new application for metamaterials. Linear Algebra for Describing Polarization and Polarizing Elements Alex Miles, September 2, 2014 Last edit: September 5, 2014 1 Matrices as Operators So far we've been using matrices to describe linear systems of simultaneous equations, however they can also be used to describe maps or operations. Experimental results are presented and compared to numerical simulations, and they demonstrate that the proposed polarization converter has a significantly polarization conversion ratio over 0. δ and any ratio (/)EE x y. 1(b), is obvious. Use this simple online calculator to calculate antennas linear, circular and elliptical polarization. In that case we say that the antenna is circularly polarized. Similarly, the second scheme won't work if you only collect light from a small portion of the beam where the polarization doesn't vary much. a transverse sinusoidally varying electric field whose direction, represented by vector E, is perpendicular to the direction of propagation of the wave. As an example, an LTC polarization conversion metasurface operating in 11. Linear Polarization : Tip of the vector describes a line. 6 It can reach maximum 93. One choice of two components is vertical and horizontal linear. linear polarization lies on the equator, as shown in Fig. There is a third common type of polarization, which is a complex combination of both linear and circular polarization, known as elliptical polarization. Field vector in linear polarization representation or Jones vector returned as a 1-by-N complex-valued row vector or 2-by-N complex-valued matrix. The change of polarization that ac-. conversion fluorescence intensity as the function of the l/4 wave plate angle, together with the theoretical calculation. First as Waht suggests circular polarization can be produced with a helical antenna. Linear polarization on the other hand will be seen all the time on Ku- and Ka-Band antennas. Consider 2 electrical vectors at right angles to each other. however, the term elliptical polarization is used to indicate polarizations other than linear or circular. Vertically and horizontally mounted antennas are designed to transmit or receive vertically and horizontally polarized waves, respectively. Conversion to and from Linear Polarization. Theoretically, linear and circular polarization are special cases of elliptical polarization. Introduction Birefringence effects on the transport of polarized radiation in a magnetized plasma are usually dealt with in the limiting cases of circular and linear birefringence, namely, Faraday. Polarized light falls on the cone from the top at Brewster angle. Electromagnetic wave is said to be polarized in the direction of E(Electric field) vector. By convention this is measured from north, with increasing values rotating eastwards. First as Waht suggests circular polarization can be produced with a helical antenna. Find helpful customer reviews and review ratings for Linear Polarization A5 Sheet Polarizer Educational Physics Polarized Filter Optical at Amazon. A simple polarization rotator consists of a half wave plate in linear polarized light. polarization depends quadratically on the electric field and photons incident on a non-linear crystal can be “converted” into two photons. 0%, and average 87. We experimentally demonstrate that this meta-reflectarray can be used to realize linear polarization conversion with more than 98% conversion efficiency over a 200 nm bandwidth in the short-wavelength infrared band. Consider 2 electrical vectors at right angles to each other. main polarization types linear, circular and elliptical polarized light. 5 mm-thick dielectric spacer. Ernst Mach has once designed an experiment which nicely illustrates linear polarization using a glass cone. After design of each block, corresponding VHDL code was written by me. Two principle experimental con- gurations are considered: re ection and transmission at normal. EFFICIENCY OF LINEAR-TO-CIRCULAR POLARIZATION CONVERSION AS A FUNCTION OF PRINCIPAL ANGLE AND PRINCIPAL AZIMUTH At the principal angle, the complex-amplitude Fresnel re-ﬂection coefﬁcients r p and r s for the p and s polarizations are related by  r p = j tan¯ r s. cident light is y-polarized, the effect of polarization conversion Fig. Image quality degraded by instrument polarization. Find Linear Polarization Ku Band Satellites related suppliers, manufacturers, products and specifications on GlobalSpec - a trusted source of Linear Polarization Ku Band Satellites information. axis is incident on two different objects. For example, using a quarter-wave plate, you can convert an input beam from linear polarization to circular (or elliptical) polarization and vice versa. The top panel ws sho the es Stok I pro le. The state of polarization is non-uniform across the pulse because of the intensity dependence of the nonlinear phase shift. The equation of elipse then reduces to This is the equation of a straight line with slope ( ). If fv is a matrix, each column in fv represents a field in the form of [Eh;Ev], where Eh and Ev are the field’s horizontal and vertical polarization components. The tip of the field vector follows a sine curve in a plane containing the direction of propagation, and therefore traces a straight line in a fixed plane perpendicular to the direction of propagation. linear polarization, the poles represent right-hand and left-hand circular polarization, and other points on the sphere represent elliptical polarization (see Figure 6). As the circular wave travels along the slabbed wave guide the polarization becomes elliptical, until progressively, at some point, it is linear. Stokes Q U: linear polarization. In general, the tip of the electric field vector (see sidebar) traces an elliptical path as it passes a point in space. The following development is applicable to polarization phenomena having diverse microscopic origins. The following is the theo-. APPLIED PHYSICS LETTERS 89, 051114 共2006兲 Linear to axial or radial polarization conversion using a liquid crystal gel Hongwen Ren, Yi-Hsin Lin, and Shin-Tson Wua兲 College of Optics and Photonics, University of Central Florida, Orlando, Florida 32816 共Received 1 May 2006; accepted 24 June 2006; published online 3 August 2006兲 Two types of liquid crystal 共LC兲 gels with radial or. An ultra-small coupler, a ring resonator and an S-bend previously realized in IMOS Figure 2. The conversion efficiency of the RV-VRs with different initial powers as a function of distances during propagation in an SNN medium is shown in figure 6. Light is a transverse electromagnetic wave, but natural light is generally unpolarized, all planes of propagation being equally probable. When not even the magnitude is constant, we refer to that as elliptical polarization. a combination of right and left circular polarization. Therefore, changes in polarization cause changes in the magnitude of the received signal due to the inability of the antenna to receive polarization changes. Circularly polarized light can be converted into linearly polarized light by passing it through a quarter-waveplate. svg; File:Polarisation state - Linear polarization oriented at +45deg. Recent advances in. Linear po-larization occurs if the polarization ellipse degenerates into a line. These will include linearly polarized, circularly polarized, elliptically polar-ized and unpolarized light. 3 GHz is designed and fabricated, which is composed of two layers of metallic pattern arrays separated by a 1. Often optical systems are designed with little or no consideration for the applications of images. Hence this type of polarization is called circular polarization. Recently, Tsai and Wu reported a broadband wide-incident-angle reflective polarization converter using a metal grating to replace the diffusive reflector. Electromagnetic wave is said to be polarized in the direction of E(Electric field) vector. 3 Quick estimation of a wave polarization state A wave polarization is completely defined by two parameters derived from the polarization ellipse - its orientation. For linear polarization the ellipse collapses to a straight line and θ is known as the position angle of polarization, essentially giving the preferred angle of the radiation's electric field, as projected onto the plane of the sky. svg; File:Polarisation state - Left-elliptical polarization B. svg Right-circular polarization Right-elliptical polarization +45°. 0%, minimum 48. Display of linearity and planearity coefficient. linear polarisation vs Circular polarisation vs elliptical polarisation. So this is another type of polarization, where the actual angle of polarization rotates smoothly as this light ray enters your eye. Evolutive Polarization: the polarization vectors are computed. This can be visualized as before by the end of the electric field vector tracing out an elliptical-shaped bottle opener. Quarterwave plate The Jones matrix of a quarterwave plate with c-axis along the x-axis + − = j j M 0 1 1 0 2 1. Applications. Polarization can be classified as linear, circular, and elliptical. Implementing polarization control can be useful in imaging applications. Polarization. Finally, note that circular polarization and linear polarization are both special cases of elliptical polarization. For example, vertical polarization is a combination of right and left circular polarization exactly in phase and with equal magnitude; horizontal would be left and right o set by 90 degrees. Whereas at low light intensities the electric polarization is proportional to the electric field strength, nonlinear contributions become important at high optical intensities, as they can e. Polarization via Birefringence There is an asymmetry in index of refraction that exists in some materials, called birefringence. Linear Polarization. In electrodynamics, elliptical polarization is the polarization of electromagnetic radiation such that the tip of the electric field vector describes an ellipse in any fixed plane intersecting, and normal to, the direction of propagation. This paper presents resonant elements for polarization conversion reflectarray. Polarization of the wave radiated by an antenna is known as antenna polarization. List two uses of circularly polarized light. The metasurface polarizer is composed of active unit cells incorporating voltage-controlled varactor diodes, where the dispersion responses of the cells can be tailored. Two principle experimental con- gurations are considered: re ection and transmission at normal. In the latter cases, the. All other points on the sphere represent elliptical polarization states. Phys: Cond. Introduction to Radio Wave Polarization Whitham D. For example, vertical polarization is a combination of right and left circular polarization exactly in phase and with equal magnitude; horizontal would be left and right o set by 90 degrees. Polarization conversion with elliptical patch nanoantennas Feng Wang,1,a) Ayan Chakrabarty,1,a) Fred Minkowski,1 Kai Sun,2 and Qi-Huo Wei1,b) 1Liquid Crystal Institute and the Department of Chemical Physics, Kent State University, Kent,. Circular polarization is a limiting case of the more general condition of elliptical polarization. Moreover, the physical mechanism of polarization sensitivity of the designed structure is investigated by the distributions of electric field. It is structured from UVFS material, is 3mm thick and round, with diameter of 25. Linear, circular, and elliptical polarization. 3 GHz is designed and fabricated, which is composed of two layers of metallic pattern arrays separated by a 1. It is possible to use a liquid crystal device to convert the polarization of a beam to a radial state, or a radially polarized beam can be produced by a laser, or any collimated light source, in which the Brewster window is replaced by a cone at Brewster's angle. Linear Polarization Executive Summary The objective of this white paper is to provide a high level analysis of circular and linear polarization, and to alleviate the confusion and misconceptions surrounding these forms of technology. The script will run a number of FDE simulations, varying the waveguide. If the major and minor axes of the ellipse are equal, the polarization is said to be circular. In this paper, we propose to achieve wideband linear-to-circular (LTC) polarization conversion by ultra-thin bi-layered metasurfaces. We also demonstrate optical vortex beam generation using a meta-reflectarray with an azimuthally varied phase profile. Correctly chosen waveplates can convert any polarization state into a new polarization state, and are most often used to rotate linear polarization, to convert linearly polarized light to circularly polarized light or vice versa. This is known as circular polarization, and it is distinct from linear polarization. main polarization types linear, circular and elliptical polarized light. Mathematically, the linear and the circular polarizations are special cases of the elliptical polarization. The state of polarization may depend on the two transverse coordinates. Examples are the CVI Glan Laser Polarizers. The state of polarization is non-uniform across the pulse because of the intensity dependence of the nonlinear phase shift. Polarization state is an important characteristic of electromagnetic waves. 0%, minimum 48. svg; File:Polarisation state - Left-elliptical polarization B. Linear, circular, and elliptical polarizations are three specific types of TEM polarization. The radar scatter matrix can be accurately characterized in magnitude, relative phase, and polarization for both far-field monostatic and bistatic conditions by means of a microwave interferometer. Polarization - Polarizer - Explained and animated 3d A polarizer or polariser is an optical filter that lets light waves of a specific polarization pass and blocks light waves of other. The scale works both ways. The polarization state of a plane wave can be described by orientation and ellipticity, plus a parameter S 0 that is proportional to the total intensity of the wave. These delays add or subtract some phase from the wave components to make the polarization vector rotate about the propagation direction. In this part of the experiment, you should separate the two different kinds of polarizers and mark the transmission axes on the linear polarizers. If agauge symmetry is anomalous (i. 2) Reduce the rate to 128 MHz by parallel processing techniques in FPGA. degrees of ellipticity, and with the major elliptical axis at an arbitrary angle relative to some reference orientation. 9 THz (32%). Linearly polarized light shines on a chiral target and emerges elliptically polarized. By delaying the x-component with respect to the y-component, it is possible to produce forms of elliptical or circular polarization. At a fixed point in space the electric field vector rotates with its tip sweeping out the curve of the ellipse in one period of oscillation. When the transition dipole moment is perpendicular to the QW plane, we have TM polarization. Electromagnetic wave is said to be polarized in the direction of E(Electric field) vector. Circular polarization is a… Read More; optical activity. Writing the horizontal and vertical components of the Electric Field vector as E h and E v, the British physicist, Gabriel Stokes, described the polarization state of the EM wave by a 4-element vector, [ S 0, Q, U V ] T, now known. retarder; linear polarization is thus converted to ellip-tical polarization due to the arbitrary phase shift. So how about when a slant polarization antenna is communicating to a linear polarization antenna? This scenario will exist with Mimosa products when using an A5c connectorized access point with a 4x4 MIMO sector antenna such as the KP Performance x4 (linear H/V/H/V polarization), communicating with a Mimosa C5 client (slant +45/-45). δ and any ratio (/)EE x y. The amplitude relationship between. In this applet, you can pur 1, 2, or 3 linear polarizers onto an optical bench and let a beam of unpolarized red light pass through them. This is the case if ψin (1) is equal to 0 or a multiple of π. 06 over the whole bandwidth. ation is that which superposes the vector of. A linear cross‐polarization conversion is subsequently achieved when the arm length is within the range from 3. We do the research of the polarization of solitons formed by the pulse breakup process by the effect of modulation instability with pump pulses of nanoseconds in standard fiber (SMF-28) with circular birefringence introduced by fiber twist, and the twisted fiber mitigates the random linear birefringence. In polarized light, the electric-field oscillation remains in a single plane (linear polarization, left), rotates azimuthally while changing magnitude (ellipti-cal polarization, middle), or rotates azimuthally while maintaining a constant. Keller and G. Below is an example schematic diagram of circular dichroism. A polarizing filter has a particular transmission axis and only allows light waves aligned with that axis to pass through. Elliptical Polarization : Tip of the vector describes an ellipse. Depending upon the direction of rotation, it may be right or left polarization as viewed from the source. There are three states of polarization that are used to describe light, linear, circular, and. (b) Right hand elliptical polarizations. In electrodynamics, linear polarization or plane polarization of electromagnetic radiation is a confinement of the electric field vector or magnetic field vector to a given plane along the direction of propagation. This deﬁnition assumes no restriction on the type and orientation of the AUT. intriguing optical device because it can convert a linearly polarized light into circular, elliptical, axial, radial, or azi-muthal polarization depending on the LC conﬁgurations. a linear scale. Circular polarization was set by adding a quarter-waveplate film (Bolder Vision Optik) after the wire-grid polarizer with the fast axis set placed at 45 deg from the reference. Polarization parameters for elliptical polarization type. Therefore, changes in polarization cause changes in the magnitude of the received signal due to the inability of the antenna to receive polarization changes. From a technical perspective, linear polarization is defined as polarization of an electromagnetic wave in which the electric vector at a fixed point in space remains pointing in a fixed direction, although varying in magnitude. Moreover, the physical mechanism of polarization sensitivity of the designed structure is investigated by the distributions of electric field. Податотека:Polarisation state - Right-elliptical polarization A. In Case A the light intercepts a linear polarizer with polarization along the y-axis In Case B, the light intercepts a quarter wave plate with vast axis along the y-axis. The Discovery. High-efficiency ultra-wideband polarization conversion metasurfaces based on split elliptical ring resonators: Yu Ji-Bao 1, Ma Hua 1, Wang Jia-Fu 1, Feng Ming-De 1 2, Li Yong-Feng 1, Qu Shao-Bo 1: 1. This is a simulation intended to help visualize polarization. Measurements in a circular polarization basis are characterized by the covariances W 1 = W L, W 2 = W R, and W = W LR. Within linear polarization, there are two subtypes, vertical polarization and horizontal polarization. All waves are elliptically polarized. Convert Elliptical Polarization To Linear Polarization.